Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809). Autograph music... - Lot 82 - Ader

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Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809). Autograph music... - Lot 82 - Ader
Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809). Autograph music manuscript, [2 Trios with baritone]; 4 pages of one bifeuillet 35.8 x 21.7 cm (slight split at middle fold).
Rare autograph manuscript of two trios or divertimenti for baritone, viola and cello [Hob.XI 48 and 50].
The manuscript is written in brown ink on a two-sheet paper with 12 hand-drawn staves, and numbered (late) 41 in pencil.
At the bottom of the first page, ex-dono from the music publisher August Artaria (1807-1893) to the violinist Henri Vieuxtemps: "Authograph of Jos. Haydn / given to Mr. H. Vieuxtemps / by Auguste Artaria / Vienna this 23th of February 1854".
[August Artaria had already given Vieuxtemps a manuscript of Josef Haydn in 1837, see Marie Cornaz, " Henry Vieuxtemps, sur les traces d'un jeune violoniste virtuose ", in Monte Artium, I, 2008].

The baritone was a kind of viola da gamba, which, in addition to its gut strings, rubbed with the bow, was equipped, behind them, with metal strings that resonated sympathetically, and which could also be plucked by the thumb of the left hand (which made it rather difficult to play), all of which gave the instrument a very particular resonance and tone. Haydn's patron and protector, Prince Nicholas Esterházy (1714-1790), known as "the Magnificent," was a baritone enthusiast, of which he was quite proficient, and owned several; he also had a resident baritone player, Andreas Lidl. Haydn, who practiced playing the baritone himself for six months, composed 175 baritone pieces for his prince: octets, quintets, duets, cassations, divertimentos, concertos, and especially 126 trios for baritone, viola and cello.

The two trios noted in this manuscript were composed around 1767-1768. These dates can be deduced from the binding invoices for the copies of the trios or "divertimenti" in five volumes (each volume comprising three quires corresponding to each of the parts: baritone, viola and cello): trio 48 is the last of volume II (invoice of October 11, 1767, nos. 25-48), and trio 50 is the second of volume III (invoice of July 7, 1768, 49-72).
According to Elaine R. Sisman (quoted by Marc Vignal), volumes II and III "contain a certain amount of expansion and experimentation. Haydn is now interested in the possibilities and sonorities of the baritone, exploiting not only its sympathetic plucked strings but also its solo capabilities in concertante and cadential episodes. At the same time, he explored new textures by allowing the bass to participate in the thematic work, a move previously unheard of in his chamber music...
The autograph manuscripts of the Baritone Trios are extremely rare. Most of the Trios are known only through copies (some have disappeared). Autographs, partial or complete, are known for only about ten Trios, to which the present manuscript is added.

The manuscript presents the last two movements of the Trio Hob.XI 48, and the first movement of the Trio Hob.XI 50, both in D major. The numbers below some of the notes indicate the sympathetic notes with the corresponding string number.
Page 1 gives the "Trio" (from the Menuetto, 2nd movement of the Trio Hob.XI 48), notated on three systems of three superimposed staves (baritone, viola, cello): lines 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9, or 28 bars without repeats. At the top, Haydn has written the title "Trio," and at the end the indication "Menuet da capo."
Pages 2-3 give the "Finale. Allegro di molto" (in Haydn's hand), 3rd and last movement of the Trio Hob.XI 48), again notated on three superimposed staves (baritone, viola, cello), i.e. eight systems (4 per page), or 90 bars without repeats. A first draft of the 47th bar has been crossed out. At the end, as usual, Haydn inscribed the formula: "Laus Deo".
Page 4 presents the draft of the first movement of the Trio Hob.XI 50. This movement consists of a theme (Andante) and 4 variations, but only the variations are noted here, in an order different from the final version: 3, 1, 2 and 4. The 3rd variation (lines 1-2) is notated on a single staff, bringing together the baritone part and, below it, the viola part; Haydn did not include the bass or cello part, this voice being the same in the theme and the variations. The first variation is the only one to be notated on three superimposed staves corresponding to the three voices (lines 3-5 and 6-8). The second variation (lines 9-10) is, like the third, notated on a single staff, bringing together the baritone part and, below, the alto part. The 4th and last variation (lines 11-12) is also notated on a single staff, with the baritone part and the viola part below it.
Thanks to Dr Armin Raab of the Joseph-Haydn Institute for his valuable information.
Provenance: collection of the violinist Henr
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